Besides its cuisine, Hungary is world-famous for its top quality wines. There are a lot of wine regions in the country, but perhaps the most well known is the Tokaji wine region (Tokaji borvidék).
The Tokaj wine region is particularly noted for its excellent sweet wines made from grapes affected by noble rot, a style of wine which has a long history in this region.
Located 120 miles northeast from its capital, UNESCO world heritage site Tokaj is Hungary’s most famous wine region, producing both dry and sweet wines.
It is the latter, the lusciously honeyed Tokaji Aszu (pronounced “ossu”) for which this region is so famous. Made from grapes afflicted by “noble rot”, which concentrates the sugar content, the sweet wine has been Hungary’s crowning glory for hundreds of years.
During the 17th and 18th centuries it was the favourite drink among Europe’s royal households. It is said that King Louis XIV of France liked it so much that he called it “The King of wines and wine of Kings”. Even Peter the Great was an admirer; “I was conquered by Tokaji wine,” he said.
But Tokaj wasn’t always so highly esteemed. After World War II, when Hungary became a Soviet-influenced state, its wine production was limited to a central-planning system. The result was devastating for Hungary’s wine industry. However, new investment and a renewed commitment to traditional wine making has helped to restore the region to its former glory.
The vineyards of Tokaj were the first in the world to be classified according to quality. “The production methods are unique and it is arguably where great wine was created… between 1700 and 1737″, relates Ben Howkins of the Royal Tokaji Wine Company. In 1995, top local producers formed the Tokaj Renaissance Association with the goal of reviving the old classification system.
Today, great wines are once again being made in Tokaj and more travellers are coming to the region each year.
“Most of our customers who want to travel to Tokaj have tasted Tokaji wine already, have become fascinated by it, and want to taste more of it and learn more about it,” says Carolyn Banfalvi, author of “Food Wine Budapest”, and owner of foodie tour company, Taste Hungary.
The Tokaj region is divided into 28 intimate towns and villages which visitors can easily travel throughout, stopping along the way at the various wineries and wine cellars. Oftentimes, visitors can meet directly with winemakers and learn about the unique role of winemaking here. Many wineries are still owned and operated by individual families.
Aside from the wines, there is much else to explore. Mansions which once belonged to 18th and 19th century merchants can be found in Tokaj’s centre. There is also a local museum, which has displays of the region’s history and wine making culture. For those wishing to work off all that sweet wine, there is hiking, horseback riding and kayaking in the surrounding scenic countryside.
Tokaj may not compare in size to other wine regions in the world but its intimate and modest feel is its greatest appeal. As Howkins says, “There are not many undiscovered wine legends. The region is fascinating because it is still in a gentle time warp. Then you visit Budapest which is one of Europe’s great vibrant cities. The contrast is palpable and enjoyable.”
Grape Varieties Used in Tokaj Wine
There are six grape varieties which are officially approved for Tokaji wine production
- Furmint (the most important grape in the production of Aszú wines)
- Yellow Muscat (Sárgamuskotály)
- Zéta (Oremus – a cross of Furmint and Bouvier grapes)
- Kabar (a cross of Hárslevelű and Bouvier grapes)
Types of Tokaj Wines
Types of sweet Tokaj wines include:
This type of wine was initially known as a prime wine, the word ”Szamorodni” means ”self-grown”. Szamorodni is made from bunches of grapes which contain a high proportion of botrytised grapes and it is typically higher in alcohol than ordinary wine. Szamorodni often contains up to 100-120 g of residual sugar and thus is termed sweet.
Aszú is the world-famous sweet, topaz-colored wine, and its name means “dried”, Aszú is made with botrytised (“nobly” rotten) grapes.
The wine is racked off into wooden casks or vats where fermentation is completed and the aszú wine is to mature Aszú ranges from 3 puttonyos to 6 puttonyos, the puttony number is based on the content of sugar and sugar-free extract in the mature wine. Alcohol content of aszú typically runs higher than 14%.
Called nectar, one of the most exclusive wines in the world Eszencia is the juice of Aszú berries which runs off naturally from the vats in which they are collected during harvesting, Eszencis is traditionally added to Aszú wines, but may be allowed to and bottled pure. Aszú-Eszencia representing wines above 6 puttonyos.
How Are Sweet Tokaj Wines Made?
Berries are individually picked, then collected in huge vats and trampled into the consistency of paste. Must (name of pre-wine) is poured on the dough and left for one to two days being stirred occasionally.
Wine is racked off into wooden casks where fermentation is completed and the wine is to mature.
The casks are stored in a cool environment, and are loosely sealed allowing the air to facilitate the fermentation process. A slow fermentation process continues in the cask, usually for several years. Generally the older the wine is the sweeter and stronger it is.